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R.B.I. Vision Performance ingredients have been shown to improve glare recovery, near visual acuity, and most measures of visual performance.

A prospective, 12-month, randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled trial conducted at a VA hospital investigated how lutein and antioxidants might help support vision health. In the study, 90 subjects were given 10 mg lutein, a combination of 10 mg lutein and broad-spectrum antioxidants and vitamins, or a placebo. At the study's end, researchers concluded that supplementation with lutein and antioxidants "significantly improved macular pigment optical density (MPOD) and glare recovery, improved near visual acuity, and significantly improved most measures of quality of vision."

Richer S, Stiles W, Statkute L, et al. Double-masked, placebo-controlled,randomized trial of lutein and antioxidant supplementation the intervention of atrophic Age-Related Macular Degeneration: the Veterans LAST study (Lutein Antioxidant Supplementation Trial), Optometry 2004; 75: 216-230.

Anthocyanin compounds found in R.B.I. Vision Performance have been investigated for diverse protective and beneficial effects, including vision improvement.

In this review, researchers reported: "Anthocyanins are the largest group of water-soluble pigments in the plant kingdom, known collectively as flavonoids... During the past two decades an increasing number of studies have investigated the diverse protective effects elicited by polyphenolics present in various fruits and vegetables. These effects include antioxidant, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral, antiproliferative, anti-mutagenic, anti-microbial, protection from cardiovascular damage and allergy, microcirculation improvement, peripheral capillary fragility prevention, diabetes prevention, and vision improvement."

Ghosh D, Konishi T. Anthocyanins and anthocyanin-rich extracts: role in diabetes and eye function. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. 2007;16(2):200-8.

R.B.I. Vision Performance ingredients were found in one small study to increase macular pigment optical density by up to 39%. In the same study, R.B.I. Vision Performance's ingredients have been associated with a 30 to 40% reduction in damaging blue light reaching the photoreceptors.

 In this study, two participants consumed the equivalent of 30 mg of lutein every day over the course of 140 days. Macular pigment optical density was then measured. The mean increases in macular pigment optical density were 39% and 21% in the two subjects respectively. Researchers concluded that in a relatively short period of time, the lutein supplements not only nourished macular pigment, but yielded a 30 to 40% reduction in damaging blue light frequencies reaching the eye's delicate photoreceptors.

Landrum JT, Bone RA, Joa H, Kilburn MD, Moore LL, Sprague KE. A one year study of the macular pigment: the effect of 140 days of a lutein supplement. Department of Chemistry, Florida International University, Miami, FL

R.B.I. Vision Performance ingredients have been shown to increase Macular Pigment Optical Density (MPOD). Research has shown that those with higher MPOD have sharper detailed vision than those with lower MPOD.

 In this study, 14 different subjects were tested for their vision response to critical flicker fusion threshold (CFFT), which is the lowest level of continuous flicker that is perceived as a steady source of light. Subjects' macular pigment optical density (MPOD, a measure of retinal concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin) was measured. Researchers found that the participants with higher MPOD appeared to have better hyperacuity (sharper detailed vision) than subjects who had lower MPOD. 

Engles, MP, Holloway, SR, et al. (2005). The relationship between macular pigment optical density and hyperacuity training. Journal of Vision, 5(12): 59, 59a.

R.B.I. Vision Performance Ingredients have been investigated for their ability to keep the eye's lens crystal-clear.

 In a prospective study on lens clouding, researchers reported that lutein and zeaxanthin seem to modestly reduce the risk of lens clouding. The researchers reported that their findings validate recommendations to eat carotenoid-rich fruits and vegetables daily. 

Brown L, Rimm EB, et al. A prospective study of carotenoid intake and risk of cataract extraction in US men. Am J Clin Nutr. 1999 Oct; 70(4): 517-24.

Research has shown that an R.B.I. Vision Performance ingredient appears to help with dark adaptation.

In a dark adaptation study of visual performance, researchers investigated how supplementation with black currant anthocyanoside (BCA) concentrate might help. 12 subjects were given varying concentrations of BCA or placebo and then tested for their dark adaptation threshold. After analysis, researchers concluded that subjects taking the 50 mg serving of BCA were found to enjoy a significant improvement in dark adaptation. A similar study of 21 subjects taking either BCA or placebo found that the BCA group also appeared to enjoy faster recovery of visual acuity. BCA groups in both analyses were reported to have less visual fatigue, suggesting a potential eye-energizing effect with BCA supplementation, as well.

Hitoshi Nakaishi, MD, DMSC, Hitoshi Matsumoto, MS, Shigeru Tominaga, MS, and Masao Hirayama, PhD. Effects of Black Currant Anthocyanoside Intake on Dark Adaptation and VDT Work-induced Transient Refractive Alteration in Healthy Humans. Alternative Medicine Review, Volume 5, Number 6, 2000, Page 553.

An ingredient found in R.B.I. Vision Performance has been found to optimize overall vision and accelerate visual recovery in dark and low-light environments.

In an animal study, the anthocyanin CG3 was found to stimulate the regeneration of rhodopsin, which is a natural compound in the retinas that absorbs light. As rhodopsin declines, low-light vision gets worse. Researchers suggested that by promoting rhodopsin regeneration, CG3 may accelerate recovery of vision in low-light and support overall visual health. 

Matsumoto H., et al. Stimulatory Effect of Cyanidin 3-Glycosides on the Regeneration of Rhodopsin. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2003, 51, 3560-3563.

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